Thus, urbanization in India has been accompanied by a concentration of poverty and urban public healthcare has emerged as one of the most pressing priorities facing our country. Newborn mortality rates in urban settings are lower than rural areas, early neonatal deaths account for greater proportion than late neonatal deaths. The available evidence suggests that socio-economic inequalities and poor environment pose major challenges for newborn health. Moreover, fragmented and weak public health system, multiplicity of actors and limited capacity of public health planning further constrain the delivery of quality and affordable health care service.
Though healthcare is concentrated in urban areas, delay in deciding to seek health care, reaching a source of it and receiving appropriate care affects the health outcomes disproportionately. However, a few city initiatives and innovations piloted in different states and cities have brought forth the evidences of effectiveness of different strategies.
Concomitant operational research needs to be carried out so that the obstacles, approaches and response to the program can be understood. Integrated economic models have been used to project both baseline and mitigation greenhouse gas emissions scenarios at the country and the global level. Results of these scenarios are typically presented at the sectoral level such as industry, transport, and buildings without further disaggregation.
Recently, a keen interest has emerged on constructing bottom up scenarios where technical energy saving potentials can be displayed in detail IEA, b; IPCC, ; McKinsey, Analysts interested in particular technologies and policies, require detailed information to understand specific mitigation options in relation to business-as-usual trends. In this report, we have focus on analyzing energy use in India in greater detail.
Results shown for the residential and transport sectors are taken from a previous report de la Rue du Can, A complete picture of energy use with disaggregated levels is drawn to understand how energy is used in India and to offer the possibility to put in perspective the different sources of end use energy consumption.
For each sector, drivers of energy and technology are indentified. Trends are then analyzed and used to project future growth. Results of this report provide valuable inputs to the elaboration of realistic energy efficiency scenarios. This curriculum packet on politics and international relations in India contains an essay, three lessons and a variety of charts, maps, and additional readings to support the unit. The essay is entitled " India The Peacock and the Vulture.
India : Chronology of Recent Events. Sources include India -U. This report will be updated regularly. Discussions of possi- ble sales to India of major U. Continuing U. India and Pakistan. The United States also seeks to curtail the proliferation of nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles in South Asia. Both India and Rates of separatist-related violence in India -controlled Kashmir have spiked following a May massacre of. Suicide in India. The current report reviews the data from the series Accidental Death and Suicide in India published by India 's National Crime Records Bureau NCRB reporting official suicide rates based on police reports over the period of 10 years from to A reference to wider literature is made to present a comprehensive picture.
Suicide in India is more prevalent in young, is likely to involve hanging and ingestion of pesticides and is related to social and economic causes. Reducing alcohol consumption, unemployment, poverty, social inequities, domestic violence and improving social justice are essential to reduce suicide in India.
NCRB data might underreport suicide. Discrepancy in farmers' suicide rate between reports suggests that this might be overrepresented in NCRB data. An integrated suicide prevention programme with a multidimensional approach is needed. Mental health care bill and the recent launch of first national mental health policy are welcome measures.
Decriminalization of suicide is likely to positively influence mental health practice and policy in India. Nationally representative studies investigating fatal and non-fatal suicidal behaviours, evaluation of models of service delivery for the vulnerable population, investigating suicide following different treatment services and effects of decriminalization of suicide on suicide rates should be the focus of future research. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals. Renewable Energy Education in India. The issue of renewable energy sources that have great potential to give solutions to the longstanding energy problems of India has been considered.
It has been stated that renewable energy sources are an important part of India 's plan to increase energy security and provide new generation with ample job opportunities.
India 's plans to move towards…. Geriatric oral health issues in India. An overview of the demographics and oral health status of the elderly population of India is presented. India is a vast country with a population of one billion people. Of this, people older than 60 years constitute 7. There are several factors that affect the oral health of elderly.
Ninety per cent of the elderly have no social security and the dependency ratio is Incidence of oral cancer, which is considered an old-age disease, is highest in India , Preventive dental care is almost nonexistent to the rural masses and very limited in urban areas. Above all, there is no orientation of dental graduates towards the special needs of the geriatric population. Recommendations include: the establishment of Continuing Dental Education programmes on geriatric oral care; inclusion of a geriatric component in undergraduate and postgraduate curricula; initiation of a diploma, certificate and degree courses in geriatric dentistry; research on various aspects of ageing and age-related oral health problems; provision of preventive and curative treatment for various oral diseases to the elderly.
Proteomics research in India : an update. After a successful completion of the Human Genome Project, deciphering the mystery surrounding the human proteome posed a major challenge. Despite not being largely involved in the Human Genome Project, the Indian scientific community contributed towards proteomic research along with the global community. The Indian researchers have been major contributors in drafting the "human proteome map" along with international efforts. In addition to this, virtual proteomics labs, proteomics courses and remote triggered proteomics labs have helped to overcome the limitations of proteomics education posed due to expensive lab infrastructure.
The establishment of Proteomics Society, India PSI has created a platform for the Indian proteomic researchers to share ideas, research collaborations and conduct annual conferences and workshops. Indian proteomic research is really moving forward with the global proteomics community in a quest to solve the mysteries of proteomics. A draft map of the human proteome enhances the enthusiasm among intellectuals to promote proteomic research in India to the world. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics in India.
From Hair in India to Hair India. In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh.
Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair.
Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance.
PV opportunities in India. The growing middle class in India , coupled with a need for electricity to provide basic services to the masses, provides an opportunity to deploy photovoltaic systems in cost-effective applications ranging from grid-connected to isolated location requirements. This need is being satisfied by aggressive government programs, the availability of funds from agencies such as the World Bank, and the desire of Indian industries to form joint ventures for in-country manufacturing.
The relaxed restrictions on doing business in India makes today's opportunities timely indeed. Bangalore India Bio The Bangalore India Bio conference, held in Bangalore, India , included topics covering new developments in the biopharma industry. This conference report highlights selected presentations on novel therapeutics for the treatment of cancer, including identification of novel benzimidazole, N-subsituted isatin and azetidine derivatives, and an Wnt antagonist. Urology in ancient India.
The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland.
The past and the present interweave in contemporary India. To understand India , one must know of the traditional stories. Carbonatite magmatism in northeast India. The Shillong Plateau of northeast India is identified as an alkaline province in view of the development of several carbonatite complexes e.
The carbonatite complexes of the Shillong Plateau share several common traits: they are emplaced along rift zones, either within Archaean gneisses or Proterozoic metasediments and granites, and exhibit enrichment in the light rare-earth elements, U, Th, Nb, Zr, Ti, K and Na. The enrichment in incompatible trace elements can best be accounted for if the parental magmas were of alkali basaltic type e.
Dental manpower in India : changing trends since To analyse the changing trends in dental manpower production of India since and its development to date. Descriptive statistics. In India , dental education was formally established in when the first dental college was started.
Current data revealed that there are colleges nationwide granting degrees in dentistry, with a total of 25, student positions offering annually. Both the distribution of dental colleges and of dentists varies among the regions of the country with the greatest concentration in major urban areas, resulting in limited coverage in rural regions. The current scenario indicates that there is lack of systematic planning in the allocation and development of dental colleges in India. This gap in care is a result of financial barriers, limited healthcare infrastructure, poor knowledge and accessibility of acute medical services for a majority of the population.
Leveraging newly-developed ambulance and emergency medical services, incorporating recent state insurance schemes for vulnerable populations to broaden access, and combining innovative, "state-of-the-art" information technology platforms with existing hospital infrastructure, are the crucial aspects of this system. A pilot program was successfully employed in the state of Tamilnadu. The purpose of this article is to describe the framework and methods associated with this programme with an aim to improve delivery of reperfusion therapy for STEMI in India.
Can India 's "Literate" Read? This paper takes a close look at India 's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level.
A View from India
Healthcare biotechnology in India. Biotechnology in India has made great progress in the development of infrastructure, manpower, research and development and manufacturing of biological reagents, biodiagnostics, biotherapeutics, therapeutic and, prophylactic vaccines and biodevices.
Many of these indigenous biological reagents, biodiagnostics, therapeutic and prophylactic vaccines and biodevices have been commercialized. The conservative nature and craze of the Indian Industry for marketing imported biotechnology products, lack of Government support, almost non-existing national healthcare system and lack of trained managers for marketing biological and new products seem to be the important factors responsible for poor economic development of biotechnology in India.
With the liberalization of Indian economy, more and more imported biotechnology products will enter into the Indian market. The conditions of internal development of biotechnology are not likely to improve in the near future and it is destined to grow only very slowly. Even today biotechnology in India may be called to be in its infancy. Women's Work in India. The proportion of women in paid employment in India is very low, and working women tend to be concentrated in low-wage, low-status, unskilled jobs, especially in agriculture.
Even for the few women working in the modern sector, discrimination is pervasive, and change seems unlikely to occur soon. Aerosols over India. Large abundances of aerosols, or airborne particulates, over the low-lying plains of northeastern India appear in dramatic contrast with the relatively pristine air of the high-altitude Tibetan Plateau in this image from NASA Terra satellite acquired on. India 's Cities in Crisis.
Indian cities are growing rapidly due to natural increase and migration from rural areas. This has caused huge pollution problems and has resulted in overcrowded schools and hospitals. Conflict between religious groups has increased; so has crime. India is modernizing, but not fast enough. Planting Trees in India. Reforestation is desperately needed in India. Three-fourths of the country's ground surface is experiencing desertification, and primitive forests are being destroyed.
Reforestation would help moderate temperatures, increase ground water levels, improve soil fertility, and alleviate a wood shortage. In the past, people from the United States, such…. AIDS in India. A major HIV epidemic is underway in India , home to million people and the world's second largest population.
The director-general of the Indian Council of Medical Research expects India by the year to be the country with the largest number of HIV infections, with some experts predicting 5 million people to be infected with HIV in India by the year Others predict million to be infected. Although HIV is increasingly spreading to typically low-risk group populations, it is the female sex workers and their clients, long distance truck drivers, men who have sex with men, blood transfusion donors and recipients, and IV drug users throughout the country who are both the reservoirs of HIV and vectors of transmission to the general population.
Half of India 's blood for transfusion is drawn from commercial donors. As widespread HIV infection evolves into a multitude of AIDS cases, India 's health care system and economy will be heavily taxed, and the number of tuberculosis TB cases greatly increased. More than half the population carries the TB bacillus. The government by had drafted a national prevention and control plan and formed the. India 's population in transition. This demographic profile of India addresses fertility, family planning, and economic issues.
India is described as a country shifting from economic policies of self-reliance to active involvement in international trade. The government program in family planning, which was instituted during the early s, did not change the rate of natural increase, which remained stable at 2. The growth rate in was 1. The total population is expected double in 36 years. Only Nigeria, Pakistan, and Bangladesh had a higher growth rate and higher fertility in India is geographically diverse with the northern Himalayan mountain zone, the central alluvial plains, the western desert region, and the southern peninsula with forest, mountains, and plains.
There are regional differences in the fertility rates, which range from replacement level in Kerala and Goa to 5. Fertility is expected to decline throughout India due to the slower pace of childbearing among women over the age of 35 years, the increase in contraceptive use, and increases in marriage age.
Increased educational levels in India and its state variations are related to lower fertility. Literacy campaigns are considered to be effective means of increasing the educational levels of women. Urbanization is not expected to markedly affect fertility levels. Urban population, which is concentrated in a few large cities, remains a small proportion of total population.
Greater shifts are evident in the transition from agriculture to other wage labor.
Fertility is expected to decline as women's share of labor force activity increases. The major determinant of fertility decline in India is use of family planning, which has improved in access. Female feticide in India. Women are murdered all over the world. But in India a most brutal form of killing females takes place regularly, even before they have the opportunity to be born.
Female feticide--the selective abortion of female fetuses--is killing upwards of one million females in India annually with far-ranging and tragic consequences. In some areas, the sex ratio of females to males has dropped to less than Females not only face inequality in this culture, they are even denied the right to be born. Why do so many families selectively abort baby daughters? In a word: economics. Aborting female fetuses is both practical and socially acceptable in India.
Female feticide is driven by many factors, but primarily by the prospect of having to pay a dowry to the future bridegroom of a daughter. While sons offer security to their families in old age and can perform the rites for the souls of deceased parents and ancestors, daughters are perceived as a social and economic burden. Prenatal sex detection technologies have been misused, allowing the selective abortions of female offspring to proliferate.
Legally, however, female feticide is a penal offence. Although female infanticide has long been committed in India , feticide is a relatively new practice, emerging concurrently with the advent of technological advancements in prenatal sex determination on a large scale in the s. While abortion is legal in India , it is a crime to abort a pregnancy solely because the fetus is female. Strict laws and penalties are in place for violators.
These laws, however, have not stemmed the tide of this abhorrent practice. This article will discuss the socio-legal conundrum female feticide presents, as well as the consequences of having too few women in Indian society. Geographic information system GIS information may facilitate energy studies, which in turn provide input for energy policy decisions. Prior to this study, no GIS file representing the occurrence of coal-bearing units in India or Bangladesh was known to exist. This Open-File Report contains downloadable shapefiles representing the coalfields of India and Bangladesh and a limited number of chemical and petrographic analyses of India and Bangladesh coal samples.
Also included are maps of India and Bangladesh showing the locations of the coalfields and coal samples in the shapefiles, figures summarizing the stratigraphic units in the coalfields of India and Bangladesh, and a brief report summarizing the stratigraphy and geographic locations of coal-bearing deposits in India and Bangladesh.
Euthanasia: the perceptions of nurses in India. Euthanasia provokes controversies in various domains, such as the moral, ethical, legal, religious, scientific, and economic. India legalised passive euthanasia withdrawal of life support for patients with brain death or who are in a permanent vegetative state in , but research on perceptions of euthanasia among people in India is limited.
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This study aimed to examine nurses' perceptions of the practice of euthanasia as well as factors influencing those perceptions. A non-probability quantitative, cross-sectional design was adopted for a sample of nurses working at a tertiary care centre. Data was collected through self-reported questionnaires at the nurses workplace. The findings revealed mixed opinions on euthanasia among the nurses. However, the majority of the participants did not agree with the practice of euthanasia. Nonetheless, further research is needed on this issue across the country among various health professionals in the context of current legislation.
Gujarat, Western India. Extremely high sediment loads are delivered to the Arabian Sea along the coast of Pakistan upper left and western India. In the case of the Indus River far upper left this sedimentation, containing large quantities of desert sand, combines with wave action to create a large sand-bar like delta. In the arid environment, the delta lacks much vegetation, but contains numerous mangrove-lined channels.
This true-color image from May shows the transition from India 's arid northwest to the wetter regions farther south along the coast. The increase in vegetation along the coast is brought about by the moisture trapping effect of the Western Ghats Mountain Range that runs north-south along the coast. Heavy sediment is visible in the Gulf of Kachchh north and the Gulf of Khambhat south , which surround the Gujarat Peninsula. Medical tourism in India. The term 'medical tourism' is under debate because health care is a serious business and rarely do patients combine the two.
India is uniquely placed by virtue of its skilled manpower, common language, diverse medical conditions that doctors deal with, the volume of patients, and a large nonresident Indian population overseas. Medical tourism requires dedicated services to alleviate the anxiety of foreign patients.
These include translation, currency conversion, travel, visa, posttreatment care system,and accommodation of patient relatives during and after treatment. Loktak Lake, India. Loktak Lake is the largest freshwater lake in northeast India , and is famous for the floating "phudmis," masses of vegetation, soil and organic material.
The lake is a source of water for hydropower, irrigation, drinking water, and livelihood for fish farmers. The image was acquired March 19, , covers an area of India 's misconceived family plan. There is a need to shift the emphasis of the population control effort from the obligation of individual women to curtail childbearing to the provision of the resources required for poor women to meet their basic needs. Female children are less likely to be educated or taken for medical care than their male counterparts and receive a lower proportion of the family's food supply.
This discrimination stems, in large part, from parents' view that daughters will not be able to remunerate their families in later life for such investments.
The myth of female nonproductivity that leads to the biased allocation of family resources overlooks the contribution of adult women's unpaid domestic labor and household production. In the field of family planning, the Government's virtually exclusive focus on sterilization has excluded younger women who are not ready to terminate childbearing but would like methods such as condoms, diaphragms, IUDs, and oral contraceptives to space births.
Without a sustained political commitment to improve the status of women in India , however, such gains will not be sustainable. Bioinformatics education in India. An account of bioinformatics education in India is presented along with future prospects. Establishment of BTIS network by Department of Biotechnology DBT , Government of India in the s had been a systematic effort in the development of bioinformatics infrastructure in India to provide services to scientific community.
Advances in the field of bioinformatics underpinned the need for well-trained professionals with skills in information technology and biotechnology.
Amitava Bandopadhyay, Kolkata
As a result, programmes for capacity building in terms of human resource development were initiated. A case study of the Master's degree course offered at the Bioinformatics Centre, University of Pune is discussed. Currently, many universities and institutes are offering bioinformatics courses at different levels with variations in the course contents and degree of detailing. BioInformatics National Certification BINC examination initiated in by DBT provides a common yardstick to assess the knowledge and skill sets of students passing out of various institutions.
The potential for broadening the scope of bioinformatics to transform it into a data intensive discovery discipline is discussed. This necessitates introduction of amendments in the existing curricula to accommodate the upcoming developments. Medicine in South India. A three-month sabbatical allowed a superficial overview of Indian medical history and practice. As in Western nations, cost is a major determinant of health care delivery in India ; poverty and fiscal shortages, however, deny care to many.
The education of Indian physicians is similar to that in Western nations and a high level of clinical competence is seen. However, physician compensation is woefully low by Western standards. India possesses its own indigenous medical systems, purported to be the oldest in the world and predating Hippocrates by several millenia. Most Indians are cared for by native practitioners whose medical techniques are intricately related to the Hindu and Islamic religions. Many of their herbal medicines have been assimilated into contemporary Western practice.
Diseases unknown to us except by textbooks are commonly seen and effectively treated. On the other hand, Western diseases such as coronary arteriosclerosis are not uncommon in a land of massive overpopulation and malnutrition. The humbling aspect of this experience is the realization that medical practice dating back several millenia can be made more modern and carried out competently by contemporary physicians. A Western physician working in India finds an unparalleled variety of disease in a totally different medical-religious environment allowing him to reorganize his priorities and to rediscover himself in the world within which he lives.
Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in , paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus.
Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade. Environment and Culture in India. India suffers from severe environmental problems with respect to deforestation, flooding, and pollution.
These problems are associated with industrialization, lack of money to enforce anti-pollution practices, climatic and population pressures, and cultural factors. Half of India 's forests have been cut in the last 40 years. Deforestation is the…. A Tale of Two Indias. The latest battle between India 's increasingly successful haves and left-behind have-nots is playing out in the country's educational system. India 's Supreme Court recently upheld a stay against a quota system for low-caste and historically oppressed Indians, who are officially called Other Backward Classes. The decision could halt quotas for….
A survey is made of various aspects of adult education in India since , together with comparative accounts of the origin, development, and notable features of adult education in Denmark, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States. Needs and objectives in India , largely in the eradication of illiteracy, are set forth, and pertinent…. Indigenisation of Psychology in India. Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India.
Psychology went through massive expansion…. India 's Trade in Higher Education.
Book Review: The Prince by Samhita Arni
India has had an extremely adverse balance of trade in education. Though only a minor education exporter through Mode 2, India is the world's second largest student-sending country. Nevertheless, given English as the medium of instruction especially in apex institutions, low tuition and cost of living, quite a few world-class institutions, and a….
Ancient India : The Asiatic Ethiopians. This curriculum unit was developed by a participant in the Fulbright-Hays Program " India : Continuity and Change. Reading materials enable students to draw broader general conclusions based on the…. Fracture control for the Oman India Pipeline. This paper describes the evaluation of the resistance to fracture initiation and propagation for the high-strength, heavy-wall pipe required for the Oman India Pipeline OIP.
It discusses the unique aspects of this pipeline and their influence on fracture control, reviews conventional fracture control design methods, their limitations with regard to the pipe in question, the extent to which they can be utilized for this project, and other approaches being explored. Test pipe of the size and grade required for the OIP show fracture toughness well in excess of the minimum requirements. I-National Study and Vol. II-Regional Study resolves many system modeling, the study explored operational impacts of meeting India 's targets and identified.
The sociocultural context of family size preference, ideal sex composition, and induced abortion in India : findings from India 's National Family Health surveys. In this study, the author examined the effect of family size preference and sex composition of living children as determinants of induced abortion among women in India by analyzing 90, ever-married women aged , included in India 's second National Family Health Survey, conducted in Multivariate logistic regression methods were used to examine the association between induced abortion and possible determinants.
The results indicated that a woman's desire to limit family size with preferred sex composition of children, coupled with her autonomy and the sociocultural context, largely determines her experience of induced abortion in India. The former SEC has admitted publicly that he was under pressure and consequently resigned. Any officer who is appointed as the SEC will have to eventually go back and serve as an officer.
I have complied with that order. The government will decide whether I will continue as principal secretary transport or not. I still will be working off of this list or one very like it for the foreseeable future, and I'm sure soon enough I will be reading books out of sequence. I still am ending most years with a massive novel this year it will be The Way We Live Now , and I think I will try to work in one or two Dickens's novels each year, since I have actually read so few of them. At least in the short term, I seem to have radically slowed down on the non-fiction front , but I'll probably squeeze a few in from time to time.
Singer Enemies J. Still, this is a decent year plan or if I throw in a lot of Trollope and Musil's The Man Without Qualities and maybe cycle back through Garcia Marquez and Vargas Llosa , so we'll just see how it goes. I'm sure unpacking and rearranging the books will cause me to promote others on the list higher. I think after I make it through this extended list, I will more or less work my way through the rest of the books on the shelves to make sure I have had a chance to read them all.
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